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    Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer. Posthumous portrait of Christopher Columbus by Sebastiano del Piombo , There are no known authentic portraits of Columbus.

    Further information on Columbus's birthplace and family background: Origin theories of Christopher Columbus.

    Main article: Voyages of Christopher Columbus. Audio full text. Main article: Myth of the flat Earth. The two main early biographies of Columbus have been taken as literal truth by hundreds of writers, in large part because they were written by individuals closely connected to Columbus or his writings.

    Both biographies have serious shortcomings as evidence. Vespucci seems to have modeled his naming of the " new world " after Columbus's description of this discovery.

    Further, mapmaker Martin Waldseemüller eventually retracted his naming of the continent after Vespucci, seemingly after it came to light that a claim that Vespucci visited the mainland before Columbus had been falsified.

    In his new map, Waldseemüller labelled the continent as Terra Incognita 'unknown land' , noting that it had been discovered by Columbus.

    He also left his daughter to the admiral's care, calling him "his lordship", although it is unknown what became of her.

    It contained an account of Columbus's seven-year reign as the first governor of the Indies. Consuelo Varela, a Spanish historian, states: "Even those who loved him [Columbus] had to admit the atrocities that had taken place.

    Two tiny portions of dust from the same source were placed in separate vials. January Visual Anthropology.

    The youngest brother of Christopher Columbus". New International Encyclopedia 1st ed. New York: Dodd, Mead. All retrieved 3 February Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.

    Genoa: Ra Stamparia de Tarigo. Retrieved 2 February The Telegraph. Retrieved 21 November Archived from the original PDF on 23 March Thomas C.

    Tirado, PhD Professor History. Millersville University. Columbus, America, and the World , p. New York: Simon and Schuster Retrieved 29 July October Smithsonian Magazine.

    Comparative Studies in Society and History. Iberian Asia: the strategies of Spanish and Portuguese empire building, Thesis.

    Journal of the American Oriental Society. Retrieved 14 October Boxer The Christian Century in Japan: — University of California Press.

    Retrieved 28 February Inventing the Flat Earth. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Universe. Cosmos ; the mean circumference of the Earth is 40, New York: Abrams.

    Archived from the original on 7 March Retrieved 18 April Chapter XIII, p. Archived from the original on 29 October Retrieved 10 April New York: Random House.

    August Retrieved 16 March Archived from the original on 26 May Retrieved 12 October Bernard Cohen , —, ed. Everett Mendelsohn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    III, p. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Phillips Jr. Fuson, ed. Encyclopedia of North American Indians. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.

    Intercultural Press. Oxford University Press. Or "these people are very simple as regards the use of arms … for with fifty men they can all be subjugated and made to do what is required of them.

    Retrieved 24 January Confronting Columbus: An Anthology. The Journal of Christopher Columbus. London: Hakluyt Society. Portuguese Studies.

    Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, — Winius, George D. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. The Washington Post. Press, pp.

    Columbus and Las Casas. University Press of America. Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 5 January The Four Voyages of Christopher Columbus.

    NY: Penguin. Latin American Studies. Antonio Rafael de la Cova. Retrieved 10 July Translated by Keen, Benjamin. Folio Society.

    Retrieved 16 October Retrieved 4 August University of New Mexico Press. Crosby, The Columbian Exchange, Westport, , pp. The Ecologist. New York: Alfred A.

    The Journal of Economic History. McAlister Spain and Portugal in the New World, — University of Minnesota Press.

    Bourne editors. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, , pp. Columbus and the Quest for Jerusalem. Simon and Schuster. Columbus, His Enterprise: Exploding the Myth.

    New York: Monthly Review Press, Retrieved 1 May New York: The Heritage Press. New York: G. Putnam's Sons.

    Marcial Pons Historia. American Heritage. American Heritage Publishing Company. Christopher Columbus: Controversial Explorer of the Americas. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons The Guardian.

    Retrieved 16 May Retrieved 12 August Columbus: The Lost Voyage. Retrieved 3 January University of Maryland School of Medicine.

    Archived from the original on 23 January Archives of Internal Medicine. Expedition Unknown. Travel Channel. Event occurs at Retrieved 26 October Associated Press.

    Archived from the original on 31 October Retrieved 15 August June Cuadernos de Medicina Forense in Spanish. Evening Star.

    Archived from the original on 2 January Retrieved 15 August — via Newspapers. The Atlantic. Retrieved 21 July The Nation. Retrieved 11 June World Digital Library.

    Retrieved 17 July Retrieved 31 August United States Postal Service. Archived from the original on 9 May Retrieved 19 January Global economic history: a very short introduction Vol.

    World Archaeology. The Columbian exchange and the reversal of fortune. Cato J. The columbian exchange. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The Columbian exchange: biological and cultural consequences of Vol.

    Greenwood Publishing Group. Journal of Economic Perspectives. Retrieved 6 September Disease and Demography in the Americas. Smithsonian Inst Pr.

    National Geographic. Not So! New York: Oxford University Press. Retrieved 5 September Inventing the Flat Earth: Columbus and modern historians.

    New York: Praeger. New York: W. McIlwraith; Edward K. Muller North America: the historical geography of a changing continent.

    Terra cognita: the mental discovery of America. Transaction Publishers. CBS News. Retrieved 26 September Monthly Review Press.

    Historical Publishing Company. Retrieved 18 June National Association of Scholars. Yes Christopher Columbus was a colonist.

    What did Christopher Columbus discovered? Christopher Columbus discovered America. Where did Christopher Columbus settle? Christopher Columbus settled in Spain.

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    Christopher Columbus was headed to India. What was the interest of Christopher Columbus? Christopher Columbus loved to sail.

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    Who discovered St Kitts? From where is Christopher Columbus? When did Christopher Columbus start his voyage? Who was Christopher Columbus-? Did Christopher Columbus have a middle name?

    How many siblings did Christopher Columbus have? Asked By Wiki User. The monument is both a mausoleum and a museum showcasing objects including a boat from Cuba and Colombian jewelry.

    According to the Dominican authorities, remains of Christopher Columbus are sheltered at the lighthouse. However, Spanish authorities have proved through DNA tests that the remains in the Cathedral of Seville are the real remains of Columbus.

    The Dominican authorities haven't allowed the same DNA tests to be done to the remains in the lighthouse, so it is impossible to know if the remains of Columbus are divided or if the remains in the lighthouse belonged to another person.

    Since the 18th century, many Italian communities in the Americas have observed the Discovery of the New World as a celebration of their heritage; Christopher Columbus whose original, Italian name is "Cristoforo Colombo" was an Italian explorer, citizen of the Republic of Genoa.

    In Italy, Columbus Day has been officially celebrated since There are no large-scale patriotic parades, marches or other events, but shops and businesses are closed as with other bank holidays.

    In recent years, celebration of the holiday has faced some opposition from various organizations.

    Opposition to Columbus Day dates back to at least the 19th century, when anti-immigrant nativists sought to eliminate its celebration because of its association with immigrants from the Catholic countries of Ireland and Italy, and the American Catholic fraternal organization, the Knights of Columbus.

    By far, the more common opposition today, decrying both Columbus' and other Europeans' actions against the indigenous populations of the Americas, did not gain much traction until the latter half of the 20th century.

    This opposition was initially led by Native Americans and was expanded upon by left-wing political parties. There are many interrelated strands of criticism.

    One refers primarily to the treatment of the indigenous populations during the European colonization of the Americas , which followed Columbus's discovery.

    Some groups, such as the American Indian Movement , have argued that the ongoing actions and injustices against Native Americans are masked by Columbus myths and celebrations.

    A second strain of criticism of Columbus Day focuses on the character of Columbus himself. In time for the observation of the day, the final volume of a compendium of Columbus-era documents was published by the University of California, Los Angeles ' Medieval and Renaissance Center.

    It stated that Columbus, while a brilliant mariner, exploited and enslaved the indigenous population. Spelman College historian Howard Zinn described some of the details in his book, A People's History of the United States , of how Columbus personally ordered the enslavement and mutilation of the native Arawak people in a bid to repay his investors.

    Journalist and media critic Norman Solomon reflects, in Columbus Day: A Clash of Myth and History , that many people choose to hold on to the myths instead of reality in the events surrounding Columbus.

    Las Casas writes that the Spaniards were driven by "insatiable greed" as they killed and tortured native populations with "the strangest and most varied new methods of cruelty" and laments that "my eyes have seen these acts so foreign to human nature, and now I tremble as I write.

    In the summer of , representatives from American Indian groups from all over the hemisphere, met in Quito , Ecuador, at the first Intercontinental Gathering of Indigenous People in the Americas , to mobilize against the th anniversary quin-centennial celebration of Columbus Day planned for The following summer, in Davis, California , more than a hundred Native Americans gathered for a follow-up meeting to the Quito conference.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the holiday. For the film of the same name, see Columbus Day film.

    Celebrations honoring Christopher Columbus 's arrival in the Americas in Recognize contributions of Americans of Italian descent.

    This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.

    Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.

    July Holidays portal Italy portal Spain portal Latin America portal. Peru News Agency. October 13, Retrieved December 29, Portale di informazioni sugli integratori alimentari.

    Archived from the original on October 6, November 23, Archived from the original on May 22, Retrieved January 30, The Library of Congress.

    Archived from the original on January 18, Retrieved January 17, UNC Press Books. Grand Central Publishing. Retrieved December 7, Encyclopedia Britannica.

    The New York Times. Retrieved October 14, New York: Palgrave Macmillan. The American Scholar. The Atlantic. Archived from the original on April 23, Retrieved April 23, What So Proudly We Hail.

    Retrieved December 2, Columbus Day in Colorado: Angelo Noce Angelo Noce, printer. United States Code. Office of the Law Revision Counsel.

    Archived from the original Text on October 6, Retrieved October 19, Today in History. Library of Congress National Digital Library. Archived from the original on October 11, Lucca, 92, Columbus Day Backer".

    March 2, Retrieved October 23, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress. Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Associated Press.

    June 29, The bill in question became the Uniform Monday Holiday Act. The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on August 21, William Thomas, 9 Feb.

    It depends on where you live". Pew Research Center. Retrieved October 2, Alabama Media Group.

    Verwandte Nachrichten. Poker Online Strategie bis zum An die erfolgreiche Arbeit von kann Alexander Gerst anknüpfen, wenn er nun im Sommer den Probensatz der Anlage austauschen wird, um eine neue Serie von materialphysikalischen Experimenten zu ermöglichen. Das Weltraumlabor Columbus Online Aufbau Games am 7. September Bereits die Entdeckung der Plasmakristalle führte dazu, dass die Lehrbücher der Physik umgeschrieben werden mussten. Im Fokus. Alle Nachrichten Multimedia Karriere. September Im " Biolab " hingegen konnten Kkiste Dr House das Wachstumsverhalten von Pflanzen und Mikroorganismen in Bahis Oynama Schwerelosigkeit erforschen. In der Schwerelosigkeit gewinnen Forscher einzigartige Erkenntnisse aus unterschiedlichsten Disziplinen, von Astrophysik über Materialforschung bis hin zu Psychologie und Behandlungsmöglichkeiten in der Medizin. Plasmaforschung auf der ISS Horoskop Spiele, Archived from the original on 7 March They pronounced the idea impractical and advised their Royal Highnesses to pass on the proposed venture. North America: the historical geography of Casino Dusseldorf Offnungszeiten changing continent. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Universe. Little, Brown. Everett Mendelsohn. Columbus Birthday

    When is Christopher Columbus' birthday? How long can a tourniquet be applied before damage? What is Victoria Justice fanmail? Could gas prices reach How often do snapping turtles need to eat?

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    Retrieved December 7, Encyclopedia Britannica. The New York Times. Retrieved October 14, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

    The American Scholar. The Atlantic. Archived from the original on April 23, Retrieved April 23, What So Proudly We Hail.

    Retrieved December 2, Columbus Day in Colorado: Angelo Noce Angelo Noce, printer. United States Code. Office of the Law Revision Counsel.

    Archived from the original Text on October 6, Retrieved October 19, Today in History. Library of Congress National Digital Library.

    Archived from the original on October 11, Lucca, 92, Columbus Day Backer". March 2, Retrieved October 23, Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.

    Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Associated Press. June 29, The bill in question became the Uniform Monday Holiday Act. The Wall Street Journal.

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    Archived from the original on October 10, October 6, Michele da Cuneo, Columbus's childhood friend from Savona , sailed with Columbus during the second voyage and wrote: "In my opinion, since Genoa was Genoa, there was never born a man so well equipped and expert in the art of navigation as the said lord Admiral.

    The exact course of Columbus's voyage through the Lesser Antilles is debated, but it seems likely that he turned north, sighting and naming several islands, including:.

    One of the first skirmishes between Native Americans and Europeans since the time of the Vikings occurred on 14 November, when at Saint Croix, Columbus's men pursued the canoe of some Island Caribs and their prisoners, which met them with arrows.

    At least one European was fatally wounded, and all of the inhabitants of the canoe were killed or captured. Michele da Cuneo, who took part in the battle, reported that Columbus let him keep one of the captured women, whom he beat and raped.

    Here, on 19 November, the Europeans rescued some women from a group of at least 20 that the local Caribs had been keeping as sex slaves.

    The women explained that any male captives were eaten, and that their own male offspring were castrated and made to serve the Caribs until they were old enough to be considered good to eat.

    The Europeans rescued three of these boys. Columbus then sailed more than kilometres 62 miles eastwards along the northern coast of Hispaniola, establishing a new settlement, which he called La Isabela , in the present-day Dominican Republic.

    In , Columbus sent Alonso de Ojeda whom a contemporary described as "always the first to draw blood wherever there was a war or quarrel" to Cibao where gold was being mined for , [] which resulted in Ojeda's capturing several natives on an accusation of theft.

    Ojeda cut the ears off of one native, and sent the others to La Isabela in chains, where Columbus ordered them to be decapitated.

    They could not get up to search for food, and everyone else was too sick to care for them, so they starved to death in their beds.

    By , Columbus had shared his viceroyship with one of his military officers named Margarit, ordering him to prioritize Christianizing the natives, but that part of their noses and ears should be cut off for stealing.

    Margarit's men exploited the natives by beating, raping and enslaving them, with none on Hispaniola being baptized for another two years.

    Columbus's brother Diego warned Margarit to follow the admiral's orders, which provoked him to take three caravels back to Spain.

    Fray Buil, who was supposed to perform baptisms, accompanied Margarit. After arriving in Spain in late , Buil complained to the Spanish court of the Columbus brothers and that there was no gold.

    Groups of Margarit's soldiers who remained in the west continued brutalizing the natives. Instead of forbidding this, Columbus participated in enslaving the indigenous people.

    In June of that year, the Spanish crown sent ships and supplies to the colony on Hispaniola, which Florentine merchant Gianotto Berardi had helped procure.

    The natives of Hispaniola were systematically subjugated via the encomienda system Columbus implemented. Whenever an Indian delivered his tribute, he was to receive a brass or copper token which he must wear about his neck as proof that he had made his payment; any Indian found without such a token was to be punished.

    Columbus fell ill in , and, as David Stannard writes, "what little restraint he had maintained over his men disappeared as he went through a lengthy period of recuperation.

    The troops went wild, stealing, killing, raping, and torturing natives, trying to force them to divulge the whereabouts of the imagined treasure-houses of gold.

    When taken prisoner, they were hanged or burned to death. A major objective of the third voyage was to verify the existence of a continent that King John II of Portugal suggested was located to the southwest of Cape Verde.

    Three of the ships headed directly for Hispaniola with much-needed supplies, while Columbus took the other three in an exploration of what might lie to the south of the Caribbean islands he had already visited, including a hoped-for passage to continental Asia.

    He then sailed to Madeira and spent some time there before sailing to the Canary Islands and Cape Verde. After being becalmed for several days in the doldrums of the mid-Atlantic, Columbus's fleet regained its wind and, low on water, turned north in the direction of Dominica.

    The men sighted the land of Trinidad on 31 July, approaching from the southeast. Columbus recognized that it must be the continent's mainland, but still believed it to be Asia.

    While he did not go ashore at this time, one of his men planted the Spanish flag there. In poor health, Columbus returned to Hispaniola on 19 August, only to find that many of the Spanish settlers of the new colony were in rebellion against his rule, claiming that Columbus had misled them about the supposedly bountiful riches of the New World.

    A number of returning settlers and sailors lobbied against Columbus at the Spanish court , accusing him and his brothers of gross mismanagement.

    Columbus had some of his crew hanged for disobedience. He had an economic interest in the enslavement of the Hispaniola natives and for that reason was not eager to baptize them, which attracted criticism from some churchmen.

    In October , Columbus sent two ships to Spain, asking the Court of Spain to appoint a royal commissioner to help him govern. In , the Crown had him removed as governor, arrested, and transported in chains to Spain.

    Bobadilla had also been tasked by the Court with investigating the accusations of brutality made against Columbus.

    Arriving in Santo Domingo while Columbus was away during the explorations of his third voyage, Bobadilla was immediately met with complaints about all three Columbus brothers: Christopher, Bartolomeo, and Diego.

    According to the report, Columbus once punished a man found guilty of stealing corn by having his ears and nose cut off and then selling him into slavery.

    Testimony recorded in the report stated that Columbus congratulated his brother Bartolomeo on "defending the family" when the latter ordered a woman paraded naked through the streets and then had her tongue cut out for suggesting that Columbus was of lowly birth.

    In early October , Columbus and Diego presented themselves to Bobadilla, and were put in chains aboard La Gorda , Columbus's own ship.

    Not long after, the king and queen summoned the Columbus brothers to the Alhambra palace in Granada. There, the royal couple heard the brothers' pleas; restored their freedom and wealth; and, after much persuasion, agreed to fund Columbus's fourth voyage.

    But the door was firmly shut on Columbus's role as governor. Columbus made a fourth voyage nominally in search of the Strait of Malacca to the Indian Ocean.

    He sailed to Arzila on the Moroccan coast to rescue Portuguese soldiers whom he had heard were under siege by the Moors.

    On 15 June, they landed at Carbet on the island of Martinique Martinica. A hurricane was brewing, so he continued on, hoping to find shelter on Hispaniola.

    He arrived at Santo Domingo on 29 June, but was denied port, and the new governor refused to listen to his storm prediction. Instead, while Columbus's ships sheltered at the mouth of the Rio Jaina, the first Spanish treasure fleet sailed into the hurricane.

    Columbus's ships survived with only minor damage, while 29 of the 30 ships in the governor's fleet were lost to a storm on 1 July.

    In addition to the ships, lives including that of Francisco de Bobadilla and an immense cargo of gold were surrendered to the sea.

    Here Bartolomeo found native merchants and a large canoe, which was described as being "long as a galley" and filled with cargo.

    In early December , Columbus and his crew endured a severe storm. On 6 April, one of the ships became stranded in the river. Shipworms also damaged the ships in tropical waters.

    Columbus left for Hispaniola on 16 April heading north. On 10 May he sighted the Cayman Islands , naming them " Las Tortugas " after the numerous sea turtles there.

    Ann's Bay, Jamaica. For one year Columbus and his men remained stranded on Jamaica. In the meantime Columbus, in a desperate effort to induce the natives to continue provisioning him and his hungry men, won their favor by predicting a lunar eclipse for 29 February , using Abraham Zacuto 's astronomical charts.

    Columbus had always claimed the conversion of non-believers as one reason for his explorations, but he grew increasingly religious in his later years.

    Probably with the assistance of his son Diego and his friend the Carthusian monk Gaspar Gorricio, Columbus produced two books during his later years: a Book of Privileges , detailing and documenting the rewards from the Spanish Crown to which he believed he and his heirs were entitled, and a Book of Prophecies , in which he considered his achievements as an explorer but a fulfillment of Bible prophecy in the context of Christian eschatology.

    In his later years, Columbus demanded that the Spanish Crown give him 10 percent of all profits made in the new lands, as stipulated in the Capitulations of Santa Fe.

    Because he had been relieved of his duties as governor, the crown did not feel bound by that contract and his demands were rejected.

    After his death, his heirs sued the Crown for a part of the profits from trade with America, as well as other rewards. This led to a protracted series of legal disputes known as the pleitos colombinos "Columbian lawsuits".

    During a violent storm on his first return voyage, Columbus, then 41, suffered an attack of what was believed at the time to be gout.

    In subsequent years, he was plagued with what was thought to be influenza and other fevers, bleeding from the eyes, temporary blindness and prolonged attacks of gout.

    The attacks increased in duration and severity, sometimes leaving Columbus bedridden for months at a time, and culminated in his death 14 years later.

    Based on Columbus's lifestyle and the described symptoms, modern doctors suspect that he suffered from reactive arthritis , rather than gout.

    Frank C. Arnett, a rheumatologist and professor of internal medicine, pathology and laboratory medicine the University of Texas Medical School at Houston.

    On 20 May , aged 54, Columbus died in Valladolid , Spain. Columbus's remains were first buried at a convent in Valladolid, [] then moved to the monastery of La Cartuja in Seville southern Spain by the will of his son Diego.

    In June , DNA samples were taken from these remains [] [r] as well as those of Columbus's brother Diego and younger son Fernando. Initial observations suggested that the bones did not appear to match Columbus's physique or age at death.

    These matched corresponding DNA from Columbus's brother, supporting that both individuals had shared the same mother. Inscriptions found the next year read "Last of the remains of the first admiral, Sire Christopher Columbus, discoverer.

    Assistant Secretary of State John Eugene Osborne , who suggested in that they travel through the Panama Canal as a part of its opening ceremony.

    The authorities in Santo Domingo have never allowed these remains to be exhumed, so it is unconfirmed whether they are from Columbus's body as well.

    The anniversary of Columbus's landing in the Americas is usually observed on 12 October in Spain and throughout the Americas, except Canada.

    It was promoted by Italian-Americans to place themselves as part of the history of the U. Historically, the English had downplayed Columbus and emphasized the role of the Venetian John Cabot as a pioneer explorer, but for the emerging United States, Cabot made for a poor national hero.

    The name Columbia for "America" first appeared in a weekly publication of the debates of the British Parliament. This was out of a desire to develop a national history and founding myth with fewer ties to Britain.

    District of Columbia , the capital cities of two U. Outside the United States the name was used in for the Gran Colombia , a precursor of the modern Republic of Colombia.

    A candidate for sainthood in the Catholic Church in , celebration of Columbus's legacy perhaps reached a zenith in with the th anniversary of his first arrival in the Americas.

    The Knights of Columbus is a fraternal organization for Catholic men founded in While its initial membership was mainly Irish, they took Columbus as a symbol of Catholicism in America.

    The issues range in value from the 1-cent to the 5-dollar denominations. Wanamaker originally introduced the idea of issuing the nation's first commemorative stamp to Harrison, the Congress and the U.

    Post Office. A total of two billion stamps were issued for all the Columbian denominations, and 72 percent of these were the two-cent stamps, "Landing of Columbus", which paid the first-class rate for domestic mail at the time.

    In , a second Columbian issue was released that was identical to the first to commemorate the th anniversary , except for the date in the upper right hand corner of each stamp.

    These issues were made from the original dies of which the first engraved issues of were produced. The United States issued the series jointly for the first time with three other countries, Italy in lire, Portugal in escudos and Spain in pesetas.

    In , descendants of Columbus undertook to dismantle the Columbus family chapel in Spain and move it to Boalsburg near State College , Pennsylvania, where it may now be visited by the public.

    Columbus's voyages are considered some of the most important events in world history, kickstarting modern globalism and resulting in major demographic, commercial, economic, social, and political changes.

    There was a massive exchange of animals, plants, fungi, diseases, technologies, mineral wealth and ideas. Though Christopher Columbus came to be considered the discoverer of America in U.

    America had first been discovered and populated by Asians crossing Beringia its indigenous population , and the first Europeans to reach its shores were Erik the Red in 10th-century Greenland and his son Leif Erikson in 11th-century Vinland at L'Anse aux Meadows.

    Thus, Columbus was able to initiate the enduring association between the Earth's two major landmasses and their inhabitants.

    Washington Irving 's biography of Columbus popularized the idea that Columbus had difficulty obtaining support for his plan because many Catholic theologians insisted that the Earth was flat , [] but this is a popular misconception which can be traced back to 17th-century Protestants campaigning against Catholicism.

    As such it contains no sign of the Americas and yet demonstrates the common belief in a spherical Earth.

    On his third voyage, Columbus formulated a new model of the Earth shortly after observing that the North Star is not fixed.

    Making observations with a quadrant , he "regularly saw the plumb line fall to the same point," instead of moving along as his ship moved.

    He divined that he had discovered the entrance to Heaven, from which Earth's waters extend, the planet forming a pear-shape with the insurmountable "stalk" portion of the pear pointing towards Heaven.

    Historians have traditionally argued that Columbus remained convinced until his death that his journeys had been along the east coast of Asia as he originally intended, [] [] but writer Kirkpatrick Sale argues that a document in the Book of Privileges indicates Columbus knew he found a new continent.

    The term " pre-Columbian " is usually used to refer to the peoples and cultures of the Americas before the arrival of Columbus and his European successors.

    Columbus is both criticized for his alleged brutality and initiating the depopulation of the indigenous Americans, whether by disease or intentional genocide.

    Some defend his alleged actions or say the worst of them are not based in fact. As a result of both the protests and riots that followed the killing of George Floyd in , many public monuments of Christopher Columbus began to be removed.

    Historians have criticized Columbus for initiating colonization and for abuse of natives. Croix, Columbus let his friend Michele da Cuneo keep an indigenous woman he captured, then, by his own account, brutally raped her.

    Even those who loved him had to admit the atrocities that had taken place. Some accounts of the alleged brutality of Columbus and his brothers may be part of the Black Legend , an alleged intentional defamation of Spain, [] [] [] while others challenge the genocide narrative.

    Loewen asserts that "Columbus not only sent the first slaves across the Atlantic, he probably sent more slaves—about five thousand—than any other individual.

    Modern estimates for the pre-Columbian population of Hispaniola vary from several hundred thousand to more than a million. Mann writes that "It was as if the suffering these diseases had caused in Eurasia over the past millennia were concentrated into the span of decades.

    According to Noble David Cook, "There were too few Spaniards to have killed the millions who were reported to have died in the first century after Old and New World contact".

    There is also evidence that they had poor diets and were overworked. Biographers and historians have a wide range of opinions over Columbus's expertise and experience navigating and captaining ships.

    One scholar lists some European works ranging from the s to s that support Columbus's experience and skill as among the best in Genoa, while listing some American works over a similar timeframe that portray the explorer as an untrained entrepreneur, having only minor crew or passenger experience prior to his noted journeys.

    Contemporary descriptions of Columbus, including those by his son Ferdinand and Las Casas, describe him as taller than average, with light skin which was often sunburnt , blue or hazel eyes, high cheekbones and freckled face, an aquiline nose , and blond to reddish hair and beard until about the age of 30, when it began to whiten.

    The most iconic image of Columbus is a portrait by Sebastiano del Piombo , which has been reproduced in many textbooks.

    It agrees with descriptions of Columbus in that it shows a large man with auburn hair, but the painting dates from and cannot, therefore, have been painted from life.

    Furthermore, the inscription identifying the subject as Columbus was probably added later, and the face shown differs from other images.

    At the World's Columbian Exposition in , 71 alleged portraits of Columbus were displayed; most did not match contemporary descriptions.

    While I was in the boat, I captured a very beautiful Carib woman, whom the said Lord Admiral gave to me. When I had taken her to my cabin she was naked—as was their custom.

    I was filled with a desire to take my pleasure with her and attempted to satisfy my desire. She was unwilling, and so treated me with her nails that I wished I had never begun.

    But—to cut a long story short—I then took a piece of rope and whipped her soundly, and she let forth such incredible screams that you would not have believed your ears.

    Eventually we came to such terms, I assure you, that you would have thought that she had been brought up in a school for whores.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Christopher Columbus disambiguation and Cristoforo Colombo disambiguation.

    For other holders of this title, see Duke of Veragua. Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer. Posthumous portrait of Christopher Columbus by Sebastiano del Piombo , There are no known authentic portraits of Columbus.

    Further information on Columbus's birthplace and family background: Origin theories of Christopher Columbus. Main article: Voyages of Christopher Columbus.

    Audio full text. Main article: Myth of the flat Earth. The two main early biographies of Columbus have been taken as literal truth by hundreds of writers, in large part because they were written by individuals closely connected to Columbus or his writings.

    Both biographies have serious shortcomings as evidence. Vespucci seems to have modeled his naming of the " new world " after Columbus's description of this discovery.

    Further, mapmaker Martin Waldseemüller eventually retracted his naming of the continent after Vespucci, seemingly after it came to light that a claim that Vespucci visited the mainland before Columbus had been falsified.

    In his new map, Waldseemüller labelled the continent as Terra Incognita 'unknown land' , noting that it had been discovered by Columbus.

    He also left his daughter to the admiral's care, calling him "his lordship", although it is unknown what became of her. It contained an account of Columbus's seven-year reign as the first governor of the Indies.

    Consuelo Varela, a Spanish historian, states: "Even those who loved him [Columbus] had to admit the atrocities that had taken place.

    Two tiny portions of dust from the same source were placed in separate vials. January Visual Anthropology. The youngest brother of Christopher Columbus".

    New International Encyclopedia 1st ed. New York: Dodd, Mead. All retrieved 3 February Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.

    Genoa: Ra Stamparia de Tarigo. Retrieved 2 February The Telegraph. Retrieved 21 November Archived from the original PDF on 23 March Thomas C.

    Tirado, PhD Professor History. Millersville University. Columbus, America, and the World , p. New York: Simon and Schuster Retrieved 29 July October

    Archived from the original PDF on April 15, Under the Mongol Empire 's hegemony over Asia the Pax Mongolicaor Mongol peaceEuropeans had long enjoyed a safe land passagethe Silk Roadto the Indies then construed roughly as all of south and Gibson Programm Asia and ChinaK0stenlose Spiele were sources of valuable goods such as Sizzling Hot Book Reviews and silk. Archived from the original on October 5, It was once believed that Columbus had discovered magnetic declinationbut it was later shown that the phenomenon was already known, both Peter Casino Europe and in China. Columbus left Castile in August with three ships, and made landfall in the Americas on 12 October ending the period of human habitation in the Americas now referred to as the pre-Columbian era. He Columbus Birthday "Por mi raza hablo mi espiritu," which translates to "For my race my spirit called," in Win2day Gratis Spiele to Wettenberg the political infrastructure at the time. Columbus sought an audience Panzerspiel Online Kostenlos the monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castilewho had united several kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula by marrying and were ruling together. Columbus Birthday

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